Refractive errors occur when the curvature of the cornea, which mainly dertermines the refractive power, is not aligned with the eye’s length. As a result, the light rays are prevented from focusing directly on the retina.
Nearsightedness (myopia): When the eyeball is too long, the light rays are focused in front of the retina. Distant objects appear blurry, those up close are clear.
Farsightedness (hyperopia): When the eyeball is too short, the light rays are focused behind the retina. Nearby objects appear blurry, distant ones are clear.
Astigmatism: The cornea’s irregular shape causes light rays to focus on more than one point. Overall vision appears blurry or distorted.
The human eye is truly remarkable in its design. Each eye is unique. The vision quality we enjoy is largely determined by the size and shape of our eyes. With a healthy eye, light rays entering the eye are focused directly on the retina to form a sharp image, which is then sent to the brain via the optic nerve and results in a visual image. When the eye’s dimensions are not aligned, the light rays are not correctly focused. This results in a refractive error such as nearsightedness, farsightedness or astigmatism (an irregular curvature of the cornea). Refractive errors are very widespread and affect people of all ages.
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